ALL ABOUT MISSILES | 2019 | UPDATED
A MISSILE IS AN INTELLIGENT PILOT-LESS ROCKET WHICH CARRIES A PAYLOAD TO A DESTINATION POINT WITH SOLE AIM OF DESTROYING
THE MISSILE IS INTENDED
KEEPING IN MIND
OF ITS TARGET,TRAJECTORY,WARHEAD
,RANGE,VELOCITY AND LAUNCH PLATFORM
CLASSIFICATION OF MISSILES
1.> CRUISE MISSILE
2.> BALLISTIC MISSILE
1.> SHORT RANGE MISSILES
2.> MEDIUM RANGE MISSILES
3.> INTERMEDIATE RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILES
4.> INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSILES
1.> SURFACE TO SURFACE
2.> SURFACE TO AIR
3.> SURFACE TO SEA
4.> AIR TO AIR
5.> AIR TO SURFACE
6.> SEA TO SEA
7.> SEA TO SURFACE
8.> ANTI TANK
1.> SOLID PROPULSION
2.> LIQUID PROPULSION
3.> HYBRID PROPULSION
THERE ALSO CAN BE MANY DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATIONS OF MISSILES BUT MORE OR LESS ABOVE CLASSIFICATION COVERS ALL THE MISSILES CURRENTLY PRESENT.
1.> CRUISE MISSILES
A cruise missile is an remote-controlled self-propelled till the time of impact guided vehicle that sustains flight through lift for many of its flight path and whose primary mission is to place an ordnance or special payload on a target. They fly among the earth’s atmosphere and use reaction-propulsion engine technology. These vehicles vary greatly in their speed and ability to penetrate defences.
Cruise missiles further splits into 3 types based on speed of the missiles
Depending upon the speed such missiles are splits as:
1.1.> Subsonic cruise missile
1.2.> Supersonic cruise missile
1.3.> Hypersonic cruise missile
1.1.> Subsonic cruise missile. The speed of these missiles is slower than the speed of the sound. It travels with a speed of 0.8 Mach. Some famous subsonic missiles are American Tomahawk cruise missile and France’s Exocet.
1.2.> Supersonic cruise missile The speed of these missiles is greater than the speed of sound.It travels with a speed of around 2-3 Mach . The modular design of the missile and its capability of being launched at different orientations enable it to be integrated with a wide spectrum of platforms like warships, submarines, different types of aircraft, mobile autonomous launchers and silos.
eg- BRAHMOS by india and russia
1.3.> Hypersonic cruise missile The speed of hypersonic missiles is much greater than the speed of sound . Average speed of hypersonic missile is greater than > 5 Mach.
There is no currently working hypersonic missile available in the world but many countries are working to develop hypersonic cruise missiles. BrahMos Aerospace is also in the race of developing a hypersonic cruise missile, BRAHMOS-II, which would fly at a speed greater than 5 Mach.
2.> BALLISTIC MISSILE
A ballistic missile is a missile that has a projectile trajectory over most of its flight path i.e. under the gravity.
Ballistic missiles are categorised according to their range, maximum distance measured along the surface of earth’s ellipsoid from the point of launch to the point of impact of the last element of their payload.
Ballistic missile carry a huge payload.
Ballistic missiles can be launched from ships and land based facilities. For example, Prithvi I, Prithvi II, Agni I, Agni II and Dhanush ballistic missiles are currently operational in the Indian defence forces.
Topol-M by russia,Minuteman-3 by U.S.A
1.> SHORT RANGE
Short range ballistic missile (SRBC) has a maximum range of 1000 KM
These are usually capable of carrying a nuclear warhead.
e.g. Hades of france,DF-15 from china,prithvi-3 by india,MGM-140 by USA
2.> MEDIUM RANGE
A Medium range ballistic missile(MRBM).
a medium range missile have a maximum range between 1000-3000 KM.
e.g. AGNI-2 by india,DF-21 by china,PGM-19 by USA
3.> INTERMEDIATE RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILE
Intermediate range ballistic missile(IRBM) have a maximum range of 3000-5500 KM.
IRBMs are currently operated by the People’s Republic of China, India,Israel, and North Korea.The United States, Russia, United Kingdom, and France were former operators.
e.g. PGM-17 THOR by USA and UK,AGNI-3 by india,DF-26 by china
4.> INTERCONTINENTAL BALLISTIC MISSLILE
Intercontinental ballistic missile(ICBM) have a minimum range more than 5500 KM.
ICBMs are differentiated by having greater range and speed than other ballistic missiles
e.g. AGNI-5 by india,DF-41 by china,RS-28 by russia,TITAN 2 by USA,LGM-118 PEACEKEEPER by USA
1>. SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILE
A surface-to-surface missile is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held, vehicle mounted, trailer mounted or fixed installation.
It is often powered by a rocket motor or sometimes fired by an explosive charge since the launch platform is stationary.
e.g. NIMROD,HERMES,LUZ,SAAB RBS15 MK3
2>. SURFACE TO AIR MISSILE
A surface-to-air missile is developed to release from ground to destroy flying targets like aircrafts, helicopters and even ballistic missiles.
These missiles are generally called air defence systems as they defend any aerial attacks by the enemy by destroying enemy’s ballistic missile.
e.g. AKASH by india,BARAK-8 by india-israiel
3>. SURFACE TO SEA
A surface-to-sea missile is developed to launched from surface to ship or submarine in the sea as targets.
e.g. ONIX by russa
4>. AIR TO SURFACE
An air-to-surface missile is designed for launch from military aircraft and strikes ground targets on land, at sea or both.
The missiles are basically guided via laser guidance, infrared guidance and optical guidance or via GPS signals. The type of guidance depends on the type of target.
e.g. AGM-88 HARM by USA,KH-25 by RUSSIA,RUDRA-M by INDIA
5>. AIR TO AIR
An air-to-air missile is launched from an aircraft to destroy the enemy aircraft. The missile flies at a speed of 4 Mach.
e.g. ASTRA MK-1 by india,RAFAEL DERBY by israel,AAM-5 by japan,TY-90 by china,NOVATOR KS-172 by russia,AIM-120 AMRAAM by USA,R-73 by russia.
6>. SEA TO SEA
A sea-to-sea missile is designed for launch from one ship to another ship.
Also known as anti ship missiles
e.g. HARPOON BLOCK 2 by USA,TOMAHAWK by USA
HARPOON BLOCK 2 ER
7>. SEA TO SURFACE
A sea-to-surface missile is designed for launch from ship to land based targets.
8>. ANTI-TANK MISSILE
An anti-tank missile is a guided missile specially designed to hit and destroy heavily-armoured enemytanks and other armoured fighting vehicles. Anti-tank missiles could be launched from aircraft, helicopters, tanks and also from shoulder mounted launcher.
e.g. 9M 133 KORNET by russia,MBDA by france,RAFAEL SPIKE BY israel,FGM-148 JAVELIN by USA
A conventional warhead inherits high energy explosives. It is filled with a chemical explosives and depends on the detonation of the explosive and the resulting metal casing fragmentation as kill mechanisms.
In a strategic warhead, radio active materials are used and when launched they exhibit huge radio activity that can wipe out even cities. They are generally designed for mass destruction.
1>. SOLID PROPULSION
Solid fuel is used in solid propulsion. Generally, the fuel is aluminium powder. Solid propulsion has the advantage of being easily stored and can be handled in fuelled condition. It can reach very high speeds quickly. Its simplicity also makes it a good choice whenever large amount of thrust is needed
2>. LIQUID PROPULSION
The liquid propulsion technology uses liquid as fuel. The fuels are hydrocarbons. The storage of missile with liquid fuel is difficult and complex. In addition, preparation of missile takes considerable time. In liquid propulsion, propulsion can be controlled easily by restricting the fuel flow by using valves and it can also be controlled even under emergency conditions. Basically, liquid fuel gives high specific impulse as compared to solid fuel.
3>. HYBRID PROPULSION
There are two stages in hybrid propulsion – solid propulsion and liquid propulsion. This kind of propulsion compensates the disadvantages of both propulsion systems and has the combined advantages of the two propulsion systems.
A ramjet engine does not have any turbines unlike turbojet engines. It achieves compression of intake air just by the forward speed of the air vehicle. The fuel is injected and ignited. The expansion of hot gases after fuel injection and combustion accelerates the exhaust air to a velocity higher than that at the inlet and creates positive push. However, the air entering the engine should be at supersonic speeds. So, the aerial vehicle must be moving in supersonic speeds. Ramjet engines cannot propel an aerial vehicle from zero to supersonic speeds.
Scramjet is an acronym for Supersonic Combustion Ramjet. The difference between scramjet and ramjet is that the combustion takes place at supersonic air velocities through the engine. It is mechanically simple, but vastly more complex aerodynamically than a jet engine. Hydrogen is normally the fuel used.
Cryogenic propellants are liquefied gases stored at very low temperatures, most frequently liquid hydrogen as the fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Cryogenic propellants require special insulated containers and vents which allow gas to escape from the evaporating liquids. The liquid fuel and oxidizer are pumped from the storage tanks to an expansion chamber and injected into the combustion chamber where they are mixed and ignited by a flame or spark. The fuel expands as it burns and the hot exhaust gases are directed out of the nozzle to provide thrust.
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